8.1. Identify the psychosocial task of early childhood, as described by Erikson.
8.2. Discuss young children’s emerging sense of self.
8.3. Compare the development of prosocial and aggressive behavior during early childhood.
8.4. Analyze the relation of four parenting styles and their associations with child outcomes.
8.5. Describe the effects of discipline on children’s development.
8.6. Explain the effects of child maltreatment and factors that place children at risk for experiencing maltreatment.
8.7. Summarize findings regarding gender differences during early childhood.
8.8. Compare and contrast biological, cognitive, and contextual theoretical explanations of gender role development.
8.9. Discuss the function of play and the form it takes in early childhood.