Learning Objectives

12.1. Identify ways in which self-conceptions and self-esteem change during adolescence.
12.2. Outline the process of identity development during adolescence, including influences and outcomes associated with identity status.

12.3. Explore changes in adolescents’ relationships with parents and the contribution of parenting style and monitoring to adolescent adjustment.

12.4. Compare and contrast the nature of friendship and dating during adolescence.

12.5. Differentiate the developmental progression of cliques and crowds.

12.6. Analyze how susceptibility to peer influence changes from early adolescence to late adolescence.

12.7. Compare the factors that contribute to sexual activity, contraceptive use, and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) during adolescence. 

12.8. Discuss risk factors for adolescent pregnancy and influences on the adjustment of adolescent mothers and their children.

12.9. Compare and contrast the risk factors for and treatments for adolescent problems such as depression and suicide, eating disorders, and substance use and abuse. 

12.10. Characterize normative delinquent activities during adolescence as compared with serious lifelong criminal activity.