Learning Objectives

3.1. Describe the process of conception, identifying the roles of female and male.

3.2. Describe the three periods of prenatal development. 

3.3. List six principles of teratology, and explain how they can be used to predict prenatal outcomes.

3.4. Identify drugs, illness, and environmental factors that act as teratogens.

3.5. Define fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, and differentiate between fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects. 

3.6. Discuss the contributions of maternal characteristics and behaviors on prenatal development. 

3.7. Explain the process of childbirth.

3.8. Identify and explain the neonate’s physical capacities. 

3.9. Discuss the challenges low birth weight and small-for-date infants face as well as influences on infant adjustment.