Learning Objectives

16.1. Compare Erikson’s and Levinson’s perspectives of the psychosocial tasks of middle adulthood. 

16.2. Analyze the theoretical and empirical support for the midlife crisis.

16.3. Evaluate the changes that occur in self-concept and identity during middle adulthood and their relation to well-being.

16.4. Evaluate the stability of the Big 5 personality traits.

16.5. Discuss the changing nature of friendship in middle adulthood. 

16.6. Discuss marital satisfaction, risks for divorce, and outcomes of divorce in midlife.

16.7. Analyze family relationships in midlife, including the parent adult–child, grandparent, and midlife child–older adult parent relationship.

16.8. Characterize job satisfaction during the midlife years.

16.9. Examine retirement planning and its effects in adjustment to retirement.