Learning Objectives

2.1. Explain how chromosomes, genes, DNA, and the genome relate to one another.

2.2. Identify and compare two processes of cell reproduction. 

2.3. Differentiate monozygotic (MZ) from dizygotic (DZ) twins.

2.4. Contrast four processes of genetic inheritance. 

2.5. Provide examples of diseases that illustrate dominant–recessive and X-linked inheritance.

2.6. Identify disorders that result from chromosomal abnormalities.

2.7. Discuss genetic counseling and prenatal testing, including common prenatal tests.

2.8. Describe the methods and major findings of behavior genetics. 

2.9. Compare patterns of gene expression, including reaction range, canalization, gene–environment correlations, and epigenetic framework.