Learning Objectives

15.1. Discuss age-related changes in vision and hearing during middle adulthood.

15.2. Explain normative patterns of change in the skin, muscles, and skeletal system during middle adulthood.

15.3. Compare and contrast the reproductive changes that middle-aged men and women experience. 

15.4. Discuss the common health conditions and illnesses during middle adulthood, including risk and protective factors as well as treatment.

15.5. Explain ways of promoting wellness across the middle adult years. 

15.6. Contrast the findings of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of crystallized and fluid intelligence over adulthood. 

15.7. Analyze changes in cognitive capacities during middle adulthood, including attention, memory, processing speed, and expertise.

15.8. Discuss learning during middle adulthood, particularly for adults who return to higher education.