SAGE Journal Articles

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Journal Article 8.1: Bayat, M. (2011). Clarifying issues regarding the use of praise with young children. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 31, 121–128.

Learning Objective: 8.1: Discuss young children’s emerging sense of initiative, self-concept, and self-esteem.

Abstract: Currently in the popular and academic press, a debate exists as to the usefulness and the potential harm of praising young children. On one side of this debate, there are professionals who are involved in research and education of children with disabilities, and on the other side, those involved in research and education of children without special needs. Because early childhood education has increasingly become inclusive, it is important to understand each side of this debate, and its related issues. This article reviews the literature related to use of praise in education of children with special needs. Clarifications are made regarding the cultural roots of praise and research developments regarding the arguments for and against praise. Finally, recommendations for the best practices for use of praise with all young children are made for parents and early childhood special and general education professionals.

Description: This article develops recommendations for the effective use of praise for children with special needs. It provides a fitting adjunct to the emphasis in Audio Resource 8.1 on boosting children’s self esteem.

Journal Article 8.2: Olson, K. R., Key, A. C., & Eaton, N. R. (2015). Gender cognition in transgender children. Psychological Science, 26, 467–474.

Learning Objective: 8.4: Compare biological, cognitive, and contextual theoretical explanations of gender role development.

Abstract: A visible and growing cohort of transgender children in North America live according to their expressed gender rather than their natal sex, yet scientific research has largely ignored this population. In the current study, we adopted methodological advances from social-cognition research to investigate whether 5- to 12-year-old prepubescent transgender children (N = 32), who were presenting themselves according to their gender identity in everyday life, showed patterns of gender cognition more consistent with their expressed gender or their natal sex, or instead appeared to be confused about their gender identity. Using implicit and explicit measures, we found that transgender children showed a clear pattern: They viewed themselves in terms of their expressed gender and showed preferences for their expressed gender, with response patterns mirroring those of two cisgender (nontransgender) control groups. These results provide evidence that, early in development, transgender youth are statistically indistinguishable from cisgender children of the same gender identity.

Description: This investigation finds that transgender prepubescent children (aged 5–12) are not confused about their gender, but instead show patterns of gender cognition consistent with their expressed gender.

Journal Article 8.3: Broe, A. K., Hess, P., Perkins, M. E. & Taveras, E.M., et al. (2017). Prescribing outdoor play: Outdoors Rx. Clinical Pediatrics, 56, 519–524.

Learning Objective: 8.5: Explain the function of play and the form it takes during early childhood.

Abstract: Studies support the use of exercise prescriptions in adults, but few studies have evaluated their use in children. One common barrier to effective physical activity counseling is lack of resources. Outdoors Rx is a collaboration between the Appalachian Mountain Club and the Massachusetts General Hospital for Children that pairs exercise prescriptions with guided outdoor programs to increase physical activity among children. This article describes the design and implementation of Outdoors Rx at 2 community health centers serving ethnically diverse, low-income, urban families, as well as evaluates feedback from participating pediatricians regarding the utility of the program, barriers to success, and suggestions for improvement. Our results illustrate the feasibility of implementing a pediatric physical activity prescription program in community health centers serving traditionally underserved populations. Our data suggest that physical activity prescription programs are well received by both pediatricians and families and are a useful tool for facilitating physical activity counseling.

Description: This article reviews the effectiveness of a physical exercise prescription program for children in two diverse, lower-middle-income communities.