SAGE Journal Articles

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Journal Article 13.1: Adams, S. H., Knopf, D. K., & Park, M. J. (2014). Prevalence and treatment of mental health and substance use problems in the early emerging adult years in the United States: Findings from the 2010 national survey on drug use and health. Emerging Adulthood, 2, 163–172.

Learning Objective: 13.3 Analyze physical and sexual health issues in emerging and early adulthood. 

Abstract: Onset of most mental disorders occurs by the mid-20s, yet studies of mental health (MH) status are limited for younger adults (YAs) aged 18–25. The objectives were to determine YAs’ rates of MH and substance use (SU) disorders, treatment, and sociodemographic disparities. To determine relative vulnerability and unmet need, overall rates were compared between ages 18–25 and 26–34. Using the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (n = 25,216), we estimated past-year serious psychological distress, major depressive episode, alcohol and drug abuse/dependence, and treatment for both age groups and examined YA subgroup differences (gender, race/ethnicity, income, education, and insurance). YAs had higher prevalence of MH and SU disorders, but lower treatment rates than older adults. YA females had higher MH but lower SU disorder rates than males. Other sociodemographic disparities were noted. Efforts to improve YAs’ MH status are necessary to foster a successful transition to adulthood.

Journal Article 13.2: Kallio, E. (2011).  Integrative thinking is the key: An evaluation of current research into the development of adult thinking. Theory and Psychology, 21, 785–801.

Learning Objective: 13.4 Compare postformal reasoning, pragmatic thought, and cognitive-affective complexity.

Abstract: Post-formal relativistic-dialectical thinking has been widely claimed to be a new developmental stage of intellectual development. Other theoretical models come very close to post-formal thinking, with overlapping features such as the study of wisdom and epistemic understanding, as well as models of expertise, critical thinking, and scepticism. No coherent theory exists in the fields of post-formal and relativistic-dialectical thinking, though scholars have claimed that there is some similarity between the models. While empirical evidence of interconnectedness between them exists, a major difficulty lies in the theoretical definition of concepts. We critically assess the definitions of relativism and dialectical thinking and show these to be ambiguous and weakly defined terms. We argue that the notion of “integrative thinking” should be used instead of post-formal or relativistic-dialectical thinking. Integration can be additive or transformative. Transformational integration of various psychological domains seems to be the core component in models of adult cognitive development.