SAGE Journal Articles

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Journal Article 6.1: Montirosso, R., Cozzi, P., Putnam, S. P., & Gartstein, M. A., et al. (2011). Studying cross-cultural differences in temperament in the first year of life: United States and Italy. Journal of Behavioral Development, 35, 27–37.

Learning Objective: 6.3: Identify the styles and stability of temperament, including the role of goodness of fit in infant development.

Abstract: An Italian translation of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R) was developed and evaluated with 110 infants, demonstrating satisfactory internal consistency, discriminant validity, and construct validity in the form of gender and age differences, as well as factorial integrity. Cross-cultural differences were subsequently evaluated for matched samples of Italian and United States (US) (N = 110) 3—12-month-olds. Across infancy, parents of US infants reported higher levels of activity, high and low intensity pleasure, and vocal reactivity, whereas Italian infants, particularly males, were rated higher on cuddliness. In early infancy only, US infants were viewed as higher on high intensity pleasure and perceptual sensitivity.

Description: This article describes efforts to examine infant temperament cross-culturally, in the United States and in Italy. A few differences were found; for example, American infants were higher in activity, whereas Italian infants were higher in cuddliness.

Journal Article 6.2: Broe, J., Callaghan, T., Heinrich, J. & Murphy, C., et al. (2011). Cultural variations in children’s mirror self-recognition. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42, 1018–1029.

Learning Objective: 6.5: Differentiate the roles of self-concept, self-recognition, and self-control in infant development.

Abstract: Western children first show signs of mirror self-recognition (MSR) from 18 to 24 months of age, the benchmark index of emerging self-concept. Such signs include self-oriented behaviors while looking at the mirror to touch or remove a mark surreptitiously placed on the child’s face. The authors attempted to replicate this finding across cultures using a simplified version of the classic “mark test.” In Experiment 1, Kenyan children (N = 82, 18 to 72 months old) display a pronounced absence of spontaneous self-oriented behaviors toward the mark. In Experiment 2, the authors tested children in Fiji, Saint Lucia, Grenada, and Peru (N = 133, 36 to 55 months old), as well as children from urban United States and rural Canada. As expected from existing reports, a majority of the Canadian and American children demonstrate spontaneous self-oriented behaviors toward the mark. However, markedly fewer children from the non-Western rural sites demonstrate such behaviors. These results suggest that there are profound cross-cultural differences in the meaning of the MSR test, questioning the validity of the mark test as a universal index of self-concept in children’s development.

Description: This The article discusses the mirror self-recognition task and examines the cultural variations in self-recognition. The “rouge test” may lack cross-cultural validity as a measure of self-recognition.