Learning Objectives

  1. Summarize age-related physical changes during middle adulthood.
  2. Discuss common health conditions and illnesses and the roles of stress and hardiness on health during middle adulthood.
  3. Contrast the findings of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of crystallized and fluid intelligence over adulthood.
  4. Analyze changes in cognitive capacities during middle adulthood, including attention, memory, processing speed, and expertise.