Learning Check Answers

Learning Check 7.1

1. According to Freud, which of the following is also designated as a conscience?

a. ego

b. superego

c. libido

d. id

Answer: B

2. According to Kohlberg, designating certain behaviors as “right” and “wrong” regardless of the circumstances is characteristic of the __________ level of morality.

a. preconventional

b. conventional

c. postconventional

d. nonconventional

Answer: A

3. According to Eysenck, which of the following is NOT associated with one of the three dimensions linked to criminality?

a. psychoticism

b. extroversion

c. anxiety

d. neuroticism

Answer: C

Learning Check 7.2

1. Goddard maintained that intelligence or IQ __________.

a. was influenced by one’s environment

b. was influenced by one’s socialization

c. was static or innate

d. did not influence criminality

Answer: C

2. Wilson and Herrnstein argued that street crime is associated with human nature and maintained that human nature develops and evolves from the interaction of three factors. Which of the following is NOT one of those three factors?

a. social environment

b. peer relationships

c. family relationships

d. biological makeup

Answer: B

3. According to Cleckley, which of the following is an individual who displays certain characteristics that are maladaptive and pathological, as well as key traits that appear ostensibly adaptive or at least nonpathological?

a. primary psychopath

b. secondary psychopath

c. sociopath

d. nonpsychopath

Answer: A

Learning Check 7.3

1. Some have referred to the “in and out” of prison and/or jail among offenders with mental disorders as __________.

a. the downward spiral

b. the revolving door

c. the elevator system of justice

d. the inverted sieve

Answer: B

2. Mental-health courts were modeled after __________.

a. the American Psychological Association’s Model Health Court

b. civil court procedures

c. drug courts

d. family courts

Answer: C

3. For this standard, the court included a volitional or free-choice component to the insanity defense:

a. M’Naghten rule

b. irresistible impulse

c. Durham


Answer: C