Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you will be able to:

6.1 Discuss the role of nature and nurture in exploring risk factors for offending.
6.2 Describe the various types of cytogenetic disorders and which type(s) puts a person at highest risk for criminality.
6.3 Identify the hormones that play a key role in individuals who tend to engage in chronic offending.
6.4 Explain how neurotransmitters differ from hormones, and note which of the former are the most often implicated in criminality at either high or low levels.
6.5 Identify the regions of the brain that criminological studies implicate for both structural trauma and functioning disorders.
6.6 Identify the ways the central nervous system and the autonomic nervous system play an important part in individuals’ decisions to engage in criminal activity.
6.7 Discuss the current emphasis on biosocial interactions that have advanced the understanding of the development of criminality.
6.8 Evaluate how modern biosocial perspectives have informed policies to reduce the likelihood of individuals in becoming criminal offenders.