Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you will be able to:

4.1 Explain why modern deterrence research underwent a rebirth, and identify the four waves of modern deterrence research.
4.2 Name the components of rational choice theory that were not included or emphasized by traditional Classical/deterrence theory in explaining criminal behavior.
4.3 List the three key elements of routine activities theory.
4.4 Provide examples of modern-day applications and policies that most apply Beccaria’s principles and the Classical/Neoclassical school.