Learning Check Answers

Learning Check 1.1

1. Crime that is evil in itself is referred to as __________.

Answer: mala in se

2. Acts that are not necessarily against the law but are considered atypical and may be considered more immoral than illegal are __________ acts.

Answer: mala prohibita

3. Criminology is distinguished from other perspectives of crime, such as journalistic, philosophical, or legal perspectives, because it involves the use of __________.

Answer: scientific method

Learning Check 1.2

1. Law enforcement agencies on the state level that have general police powers as well as additional functions, such as investigating major crimes, are designated as the __________ model.

Answer: state police

2. Law enforcement agencies on the state level whose primary focus is to enforce laws concerning public roads and highways are designated as the __________ model.

Answer: highway patrols

3. Every court, including the U.S. Supreme Court, is limited in terms of __________.

Answer: jurisdiction

4. Recognizing that the state has both the right and an obligation to protect juveniles is referred to as __________.

Answer: parens patriae

Learning Check 1.3

1. When a theory can explain a phenomenon using a simplistic approach, this is considered __________.

Answer: parsimony

2. When a theory attempts to explain all crimes and all deviant acts, this theory is broad in __________.

Answer: scope

3. Empirical validity is the extent to which a theoretical model is supported by __________.

Answer: scientific research

Learning Check 1.4

1. Who is considered the Father of Victimology by most scholars?

a. Lombroso

b. Beccaria

c. Sutherland

d. Mendelsohn

Answer: D

2. When an individual does or does not do something that increases his or her risk of being victimized, this is referred to as victim __________.

a. anticipation

b. precipitation

c. expectation

d. consideration

Answer: B

3. When an offender is ordered to pay money to the victim as part of sentencing, it is referred to as __________, whereas when the state or federal government provides funds to the victim for losses due to the crime, it is referred to as __________.

a. compensation; restitution

b. restitution; compensation


Answer: B

4. The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that victim impact statements can be given during only at what stage of a criminal trial?

a. before the verdict but not after

b. after the verdict and before the sentencing

c. both before the verdict and before sentencing

d. neither during the actual trial nor before sentencing; only after the sentence

Answer: B