Learning Check Answers

Learning Check 14.1

1. According to the text, which theorist is largely credited for coining the term white-collar crime in the late 1930s in his presidential address to the American Sociological Society?

a. Hirschi

b. Sutherland

c. Lombroso

d. Matza

e. Agnew

Answer: B

2. According to the text, there were numerous studies of corporate crime prior to the above theorist’s presidential address in the 1930s. True or false?

Answer: True

3. According to the text, “white-collar/corporate crime” has a clear definition. True or false?

Answer: False

Learning Check 14.2

1. According to the text, what percentage of the 25 largest Fortune 500 corporations were convicted of a violation between 1977 and 1990?

a. 20%

b. 40%

c. 60%

d. 80%

e. 100%

Answer: E

2. According to the text, white-collar/corporate crimes cost U.S. society far more each year in terms of injuries/deaths than all street crimes combined. True or false?

Answer: A

Learning Check 14.3

1. The President’s Commission on Organized Crime noted that when defining organized crime, the problem is with the word __________.

Answer: organized

2. Outlaw motorcycle gangs refer to themselves as “__________-percenters.”

Answer: one

3. Some have attributed the growth of prison gangs to the 1964 U.S. Supreme Court decision __________.

Answer: Cooper v. Pate

4. A key component of the __________ is called Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO).

Answer: Organized Crime Control Act

Learning Check 14.4

1. __________ hackers are individuals who violate computer security essentially out of malice or for personal gain.

Answer: Black hat

2. The __________ method of identity theft occurs when a victim presents his or her credit card to pay for merchandise and the offender peers over the victim’s shoulder and memorizes the card number.

Answer: shoulder surfing

3. Activities associated with __________ include monitoring electronic communication; sending electronic messages that threaten, insult, or harass; and using the victim’s email identity to send false messages to others or to purchase goods and services.

Answer: cyberstalking

4. The __________ Act of 1998 was established to address various problems associated with the Internet, including piracy.

Answer: Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)