Learning Check Answers

Learning Check 12.1

1. __________ is determined through the use of socially agreed on biological criteria.

Answer: Sex

2. __________ is a product of social “doings.”

Answer: Gender

3. Engaging in a __________ relationship usually involves a bartering system in which men hold a more powerful status than do women.

Answer: chivalrous

4. The idea of __________ is that women need to be protected for their own good. __________ is a social, legal, and political climate founded on male dominance and hierarchy.

Answer: paternalism; patriarchy

Learning Check 12.2

1. __________ feminism has also been termed mainstream feminism.

Answer: Liberal

2. According to the __________ feminist perspective, gender is a system of male dominance, and women’s biology is the main cause of patriarchy.

Answer: radical

3. Some have maintained that there are two types of radical feminism: __________ and __________.

Answer: libertarian; cultural

4. The __________ feminist perspective views class relations as primary and gender relations as secondary.

Answer: Marxist

5. The __________ feminist perspective rejects traditional assumptions about truth and reality and emphasizes the plurality, diversity, and multiplicity of women as distinct from men.

Answer: postmodern

Learning Check 12.3

1. According to __________, the criminality of women is primarily due to their ability to mask or hide their criminal behavior.

Answer: Otto Pollak

2. __________ maintained that women are inferior to men; this is primarily due to women’s sex organs being inferior to men’s sex organs.

Answer: Sigmund Freud

3. Lombroso’s theory has been designated as __________ determinism.

Answer: biological

4. According to Thomas, maleness is “katabolic” and femaleness is ___________.

Answer: anabolic

Learning Check 12.4

1. When one uses an existing theoretical perspective based on males and adds women, this is referred to as “__________.”

Answer: add women and stir

2. The __________ is also referred to as the emancipation hypothesis.

Answer: liberation thesis

3. The __________-__________ theory attempts to explain gender differences in delinquency rates by including family dynamics.

Answer: power-control

4. Some scholars maintain that approaches to assess __________ are based on biases established by, and for, individuals of privilege.

Answer: objectivity

5. The __________ research approach attempts to determine life experiences, particularly childhood ones, that place one at risk of offending.

Answer: pathways