Learning Check Answers

Learning Check 10.1

1. __________ theories focus on social or personal factors that prevent individuals from engaging in selfish, antisocial behavior.

Answer: Control

2. According to Sutherland, criminality is __________.

Answer: learned

3. __________ assumes that animals, as well as people, learn through associations between stimuli and responses.

Answer: Classical conditioning

4. According to Glaser, __________ is when learning takes place not only through people close to us but also through other reference groups.

Answer: differential association

Learning Check 10.2

1. Burgess and Akers, in their differential reinforcement theory, integrated Sutherland’s work with the learning models of __________ conditioning and modeling/imitation.

Answer: operant

2. The differential reinforcement perspective assumes that individuals are born with a __________ __________.

Answer: blank slate or tabula rasa

3. According to Sykes and Matza, youths engaging in criminal behavior are still partially committed to the dominant __________ __________.

Answer: social order

4. People use certain methods, or __________ __________, to justify their criminal behavior.

Answer: techniques of neutralization

Learning Check 10.3

1. Which theorist(s) developed the theory of drift?

a. Gottfredson and Hirschi

b. Tittle

c. Hagan

d. Matza

Answer: D

2. Which theorist(s) developed the integrated theory of power-control?

a. Gottfredson and Hirschi

b. Tittle

c. Hagan

d. Matza

Answer: C

3. Which theory emphasizes the concepts of control deficit and control surplus?

a. theory of drift

b. social bonding theory

c. differential reinforcement theory

d. control-balance theory

Answer: D