SAGE Journal Articles

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Journal Article Link 11.1: Johnston, J. D., Massey, A. P., & Marker-Hoffman, R. L. (2012). Using an alternate reality game to increase physical activity and decrease obesity risk of college students. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology6(4), 828–838.

Abstract: This quasi-experimental study investigated a game intervention—specifically, an alternate reality game (ARG)— as a means to influence college students’ physical activity (PA). An ARG is an interactive narrative that takes place in the real world and uses multiple media to reveal a story. Method: Three sections of a college health course (n = 115 freshman students) were assigned either to a game group that played the ARG or to a comparison group that learned how to use exercise equipment in weekly laboratory sessions. Pre- and post-intervention measures included weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat (PBF), and self-reported moderate physical activity (MPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA), and PA (steps/week). Results: A significant group x time interaction (p = .001) was detected for PA, with a significant increase in PA for the game (< .001) versus a significant decrease (p = .001) for the comparison group. Significant within-group increases for weight (p = .001), BMI (p = .001), and PBF (p = .001) were detected. A significant group x time interaction (p = .001) was detected when analyzing self-reported VPA, with both groups reporting decreases in VPA over time; however, the decrease was only significant for the comparison group (< .001). No significant group differences were found for MPA. Conclusions: It is important that any intervention meet the needs and interests of its target population. Here, the ARG was designed in light of the learning preferences of today’s college students—collaborative and social, experiential and media-rich. Our results provide preliminary evidence that a game intervention can positively influence PA within the college student population.

  1. What was the purpose of the study?
  2. How were the related samples selected?
  3. What were the within and between factors?
  4. What were the results of the study?

Journal Article Link 11.2: Ishola, A., & Chipps, J. (2015). The use of mobile phones to deliver acceptance and commitment therapy in the prevention of mother-child HIV transmission in NigeriaJournal of Telemedicine and Telecare21(8), 423–426.

Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine if introducing acceptance and commitment therapy in the prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programme using weekly mobile phone messages would result in improved mental health status of HIV-positive, pregnant women in Nigeria. We used a Solomon four-group (two intervention and two control groups) randomised design. The study population was 144 randomly selected, HIV-positive pregnant women attending four randomly selected PMTCT centers in Nigeria. The intervention groups were exposed to one session of acceptance and commitment therapy with weekly value-based health messages sent by mobile phone for 3 months during pregnancy. The control groups received only post-HIV test counselling. A total of 132 participants (33 per site) were enrolled in the study from the two intervention and two control sites. In the pretests, the intervention and control groups did not differ significantly with regard to demographics. Evaluation of the pre- and posttests of the intervention group indicated significantly higher Action and Acceptance Questionnaire (AAQ-II) scores. The introduction of a mobile phone acceptance and commitment therapy programme may result in greater psychological flexibility in women diagnosed with HIV.

  1. What was the study investigating?
  2. Describe the four groups that participants were assigned to in the study.
  3. What sources of variation were removed?
  4. What test statistic was used? Why?
  5. What were the results?