Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

1 Identify and define the naturalistic research design.

2 Distinguish between natural and contrived research settings.

3 Identify and describe how researchers make unobtrusive observations.

4 Describe how researchers operationalize, quantify, and manage observation periods in a naturalistic or contrived setting.

5 Describe the philosophy of qualitative research, and explain how trustworthiness relates to validity and reliability.

6 Identify and describe three qualitative research designs: phenomenology, ethnography, and case study.

7 Identify and describe three existing data research designs: archival research, content analysis, and meta-analysis.