Learning Objectives

9.1 Distinguish the various types of aggression; summarize the evolutionary perspective on aggression and the roles of genetics, testosterone, and brain structure/function in aggression.

9.2 Summarize the social learning approach to media violence and evaluate the evidence that supports or undermines the connection between media exposure and real-world aggres­sion.

9.3 Compare and contrast the original frustration-aggression hypothesis and the cognitive neo­associationist theory of emotional aggression; describe the three key contextual factors that affect aggression; identify the effects of social rejection and provocation on aggression.

9.4 Explain how the culture of honor impacts aggression and discuss the Cohen and Nisbett laboratory and field research that supports it.

9.5 Outline the major components of the general aggression model and relate them to other research contained in this chapter; explain how the factors discussed through­out this chapter fall within the model.

9.6 Describe strategies that have been shown to reduce aggression.