SAGE Journal Articles

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Boyce, C.J., Brown, G.D.A., & Moore, S.C. (2010). Money and happiness: Rank of income, not income, affects life satisfaction. Psychological Science, 21, 471-475.  DOI:  10.1177/0956797610362671

Summary: The present study examines whether absolute income or income relevant to others affects level of happiness.

Questions to consider:

  1. What is the income-reference hypothesis?
  2. How did the researchers measure income and satisfaction?
  3. In general, what were the results of the study?
  4. What are the real-world implications for the income-rank hypothesis?


Feinberg, M., & Willer, R. (2013). The moral roots of environmental attitudes. Psychological Science, 24, 56-62. DOI:  10.1177/0956796761244177

Summary: The current research examines the effect of framing on support for certain messages. Framing environmental concerns in terms of morality affects support by liberals and conservatives.

Questions to consider:

  1. How are morality and environmental concerns connected?
  2. What do the researchers mean when they say “media framing”?
  3. In Study 1, the researchers find that liberals, but not conservatives perceive environmental concerns in terms of morality. How do they adjust the measures in Study 2  in order to learn more about this result?
  4. How do researchers present environmental concerns in Study 3?
  5. How does specific framing of the message affect attitudes toward the message?