Learning Objectives

8.1 Define the social responsibility norm, prosocial behavior, egoism, altruism, inclusive fitness, principle of kin selection, heritability of helping behavior, and reciprocal helping.

8.2 Describe the mood management hypothesis and compare and contrast the negative state relief and the arousal: cost reward models.

8.3 Critique bystander apathy as an explanation for failure to help; identify the characteristics of emergencies; identify the five steps in the failure-to-help model and explain the roles of diffusion of responsibility and pluralistic ignorance in failures to help.

8.4 Discuss the practices that social psychologists have established to help safeguard the well-being of participants.

8.5 Appraise the empathy-altruism hypothesis and compare and contrast the egoistic and altruis­tic notions of helping.

8.6 Summarize research on the impacts of personal factors, attributions, and culture on helping.