SAGE Journal Articles

Click on the following links. Please note these will open in a new window.

PDF icon SJ-userguide.pdf

Fujita, K., & Carnevale, J.J. (2012). Transcending temptation through abstraction: The role of construal level in self-control. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21, 248-252.  DOI 10.1177/0963721412449169

Summary: This article describes the manner in which people cognitively represent immediate and future events, and the way this thinking affects the ability to delay gratification and resist temptation. The authors purport that self-control is dependent upon these construals of proximal and distant events.

Questions to consider:

  1. Describe the Construal Level Theory and the role construal level plays in self-control.
  2. Summarize the research on temporal discounting, choice and behavior, and prospective self-control.
  3. What are the mechanisms that contribute to self-control? Based on the research findings, what would you recommend people do to facilitate self-control?


Roese, N.J., & Vohs, K.D. (2012). Hindsight bias. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7, 411-426. DOI 10.1177/1745691612454303

Summary: This article defines and describes the factors that contribute to hindsight bias, which is a person’s overestimation of his or her ability to predict an outcome when it could not, in truth, be predicted. People’s belief that they “knew it all along” stems from selective perception, mental shortcuts, and motivated thinking.

Questions to consider:

  1. Describe the three different types of hindsight bias described by contemporary researchers.
  2. The authors put forth a model of hindsight bias, which includes three different kinds of input that lead to hindsight bias. Provide examples for the different types of input and how they each contribute to hindsight bias.
  3. What are the consequences of hindsight bias for decision-making?
  4. The authors provide several suggestions to limit hindsight bias. Describe how a person might eradicate hindsight bias.