Learning Objectives

5.1 Explain the additive and configural models of impression formation and illustrate each with an example.

5.2 Describe what is meant by a “thin slice” and the research that has supported its predictive value; describe implicit personality theories; explain how expectations or prophecies can be self-fulfill­ing.

5.3 Name and define Ekman’s five categories of nonverbal behavior; identify the six universal facial expressions; explain blended emotions and display rules.

5.4 Identify and explain the major challenges of cross-cultural research.

5.5 Summarize the research on conscious and nonconscious deception detection and on the four cognitive illusions.

5.6 Define attribution and explain the fundamental attribution error, correspondence bias, actor/observer effect, and Kelley’s covariation matrix.