Learning Objectives

4.1 Define the self, self-concept, schema, and self-schema; describe self-discrepancy theory and the actual, ideal, and ought selves.

4.2 Contrast introspection and self-perception and explain the limits to learning about the self via each process; describe how the facial feedback hypothesis relates to self-perception.

4.3 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of surveys and self-report methods and the following biases: response effects, acquiescence, extremity, and context effects.

4.4 Define intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and overjustification, and illustrate each with examples; define global and specific self-esteem and interpret them in terms of the sociometer hypothesis.

4.5 Explain each of the following and state how they are related to the goal of self-enhance­ment: social comparison theory, self-evalu­ation maintenance, downward and upward social comparison, better-than-average effect, self-serving judgments, the bias blind spot.

4.6 Define impression management, contrast high and low self-monitoring, and explain the spotlight effect, the illusion of transpar­ency, ingratiation, and self-handicapping.

4.7 Define self-regulation and its relation to willpower and ironic processes; explain self-verification.