Learning Objectives

12.1 Define group, groupiness, social selection, common-identity and common-bond groups, cohesiveness, and entitativity.

12.2 Summarize the early research on social facilitation and examine how the three theories discussed in the chapter explain it.

12.3 Discuss social loafing and free riding, explain why they occur, how to prevent or reduce them; describe deindividuation, Zimbardo’s explanation for it, and the social identity alter­native explanation.

12.4 Outline the ODDI; analyze the groupthink model, including its major antecedents, symp­toms, and risks, and the strategies to prevent it; describe group polarization and compare and contrast the three explanations for it.

12.5 Compare and contrast majority and minority influence and explain conver­sion theory, social comparison and vali­dation routes, and what minorities can do to maximize their influence.

12.6 Identify the major advantages and disad­vantages of the case study approach.

12.7 Describe the great person, contingency, and social identity perspectives on effec­tive leadership, transactional and trans­formational leaders, and the research on gender and leadership.