SAGE Journal Articles

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Brandt, M.J., & Wethere, G.A. (2012). What attitudes are moral attitudes? The case of attitude heritability. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 172-179.  DOI: 10.1177/1948550611412793

Summary: This research examines why some attitudes are judged as moral and others are not. The researchers examine whether heritiablity, and group survival, have an effect on morality judgments.

Questions to consider:

  1. How do researchers commonly measure attitude heritability?
  2. Why might some attitudes be considered heritable in comparison to others?
  3. Which two new measures were introduced in Studies 2 and 3?
  4. Describe how moral conviction affects attitudes.


Heine, S.J., & Lehman, D.R. (1997). Culture, dissonance, and self-affirmation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 389-400. DOI:  10.1177/0146167297234005

Summary: This research examines whether there are differences in self-affirmation depending upon cultural norms, i.e., independent or interdependent culture.

Questions to consider:

  1. Define self-affirmation. Why do people engage in strategies to affirm the self?
  2. Why might there be cultural differences in whether people engage in self-affirmation?
  3. How did negative false feedback affect Canadian participants? Japanese participants?
  4. Explain the research findings as they relate to cultural differences based on independence or interdependence norms.