Learning Objectives

3.1 Identify the five ways in which social cognition is different from nonsocial cognition and explain why people cannot NOT believe whatever they hear.

3.2 Define and compare and contrast the two types of processing; identify the four criteria for automaticity and list the three types of automatic processes; describe priming and spreading activation and illustrate them with an example.

3.3 Explain heuristics and describe availability, representativeness, base rate fallacy, base rate, and anchoring and adjustment.

3.4 Define reliability, validity, internal validity, and external validity and illustrate each with an example.

3.5 Explain what is meant by motivated reasoning and how it is illustrated by belief persever­ance, confirmation bias, and biased assimilation.

3.6 Summarize the basic differences between cognition in the East and in the West.