SAGE Journal Articles

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Evans, J.S.B.T., & Stanovich, K.E. (2013). Dual-process theories of higher cognition: Advancing the debate. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8, 223-241. DOI: 10.1177/1745691612460685

Summary: This article responds to critiques of dual-processing and dual system, asserting that there are two distinct types of processing evident in the literature.

Questions to consider:

  1. According to the authors, what are Type 1 and Type 2 processes?
  2. The authors organize criticisms of dual-process theories into five categories, provide a brief summary of each criticism.
  3. What do the authors mean when they say that there is a continuum of processing styles not two discrete types?
  4. Do you believe the authors’ arguments to be convincing? What evidence presented in the article influenced your belief?


Janiszewski, C., & Uy, D. (2008). Precision of the anchor influences the amount of adjustment. Psychological Science, 19, 121-127. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02057.x

Summary: This article further explains cognitive processing associated with the anchoring and adjustment heuristic by examing whether a precise, compared to a rounded, anchor affects judgments. Results reveal that a more precise anchor elicits a smaller overall adjustment than a rounded anchor. 

Questions to consider:

  1. Describe the anchoring and adjustment heuristic and explain how numerical are made.
  2. Results from Experiment 1 reveal lack of support for two competing hypotheses. What are those hypotheses and how are they ruled out?
  3. How does the manipulation in Experiments 2 and 3 differ?
  4. Describe some of the real-world situations in which this research can be of use.