After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
- Describe two criteria that make variables suitable for scientific investigation.
- Delineate the need for constructs and operational definitions in research.
- Distinguish between continuous and discrete variables, as well as between quantitative and qualitative variables.
- State the four scales of measurement, and provide an example for each.
- Describe the following types of reliability: test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and interrater reliability.
- Describe the following types of validity: face validity, construct validity, criterionrelated validity, and content validity.
- Define and give an example of intervention fidelity.
- Identify the concerns of participant reactivity, experimenter bias, and sensitivity and range effects for selecting a measurement procedure.
- Explain why the failure to replicate a result is not sufficient evidence for fraud.