SAGE Journal Articles
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Journal Article 1: McCrink, K., & Wynn, K. (2004). Large-number addition and subtraction by 9-month-old infants. Psychological Science, 15, 776–781. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00755.x
Abstract: Do genuinely numerical computational abilities exist in infancy? It has recently been argued that previous studies putatively illustrating infants’ ability to add and subtract tapped into specialized object-tracking processes that apply only with small numbers. This argument contrasts with the original interpretation that successful performance was achieved via a numerical system for estimating and calculating magnitudes. Here, we report that when continuous variables (such as area and contour length) are controlled, 9-month-old infants successfully add and subtract over numbers of items that exceed object-tracking limits. These results support the theory that infants possess a magnitude-based estimation system for representing numerosities that also supports procedures for numerical computation.
Abstract: Despite its significance for understanding of language acquisition, the role of childhood language experience has been examined only in linguistic deprivation studies focusing on what cannot be learned readily beyond childhood. This study focused instead on long-term effects of what can be learned best during childhood. Our findings revealed that adults learning a language speak with a more nativelike accent if they overheard the language regularly during childhood than if they did not. These findings have important implications for understanding of language-learning mechanisms and heritage-language acquisition.