12.1 What occurs during Piaget’s stage of concrete operations?
12.2 How do attention, memory, and executive function develop in middle childhood?
12.3 How does language, including literacy, develop in middle childhood?
12.4 How can intelligence be defined and measured?
12.5 How do we define intellectual disability and giftedness?
12.6 How do the school environment and children’s individual characteristics affect children’s academic achievement?