SAGE Journal Articles

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Journal Article 1: Riley, E. P., & McGee, C. L. (2005). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: An overview with emphasis on changes in brain and behavior. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 230, 357–365.

Abstract: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders constitute a major public health problem. This article presents an overview of important issues that surround these disorders and emphasizes the structural and neurobehavioral consequences associated with prenatal exposure to alcohol. Diagnostic criteria are discussed, and possible moderating factors for the range of outcomes are mentioned. In addition, the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders is described, and estimates of the financial impact of these disorders are given. Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can severely affect the physical and neurobehavioral development of a child. Autopsy and brain imaging studies indicate reductions and abnormalities in overall brain size and shape, specifically in structures such as the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and corpus callosum. A wide range of neuropsychological deficits have been found in children prenatally exposed to alcohol, including deficits in visuospatial functioning, verbal and nonverbal learning, attention, and executive functioning. These children also exhibit a variety of behavioral problems that can further affect their daily functioning. Children exposed to alcohol prenatally, with and without the physical features of fetal alcohol syndrome, display qualitatively similar deficits. Determining the behavioral phenotypes that result from heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is critical, because the identification of these children is crucial for early interventions. In addition, knowing which brain areas are involved might enable the development of better intervention strategies. However, intervention needs to go beyond the affected individual to prevent future cases. As evidenced by the staggering financial impact these disorders have on society, prevention efforts need to be aimed at high-risk groups, and this issue needs to be made a high priority in terms of public health.

Journal Article 2: Duncan, S., Jones, R., McIntyre, M., Pilsniak, A., Trott, J., & Desmond, N. (2012). Managing HIV in pregnancy in a community-based sexual health clinic: A decade in reviewInternational Journal of STD & AIDS, 23, 806–809.

Abstract: The management of HIV in pregnancy has evolved significantly over the past 10 years as our experience of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has grown. We reviewed 109 pregnancies which were managed at our community-based integrated HIV and sexual health clinic to investigate preconception and antenatal care, and trends in ART over time. We document an increasing proportion of pregnancies in which the mother was aware of her HIV status preconception and conception on ART. Preconception care was sought in a minority of cases, and many women did not present for first antenatal review until the end of the second trimester. Of 108 live births, there was one case of vertical transmission (0.93%). While our study demonstrates the efficacy of current strategies to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV infection, more could be done to encourage HIV-positive women to seek preconception advice and to attend for early review in the first trimester.

Journal Article 3: Koivunen, J. M., Rothaupt, J. W., & Wolfgram, S. M. (2009). Gender dynamics and role adjustment during the transition to parenthood: Current perspectives. The Family Journal, 17, 323–328.

Abstract: This review of recent literature addresses the issues of marital change across the transition to parenthood, the process of redefining gender roles, the division of labor in the family, striving for equally shared parenting, and the struggle to maintain egalitarianism after the birth of a child. Furthermore, this article also provides practice-related implications for practitioners, an inclusive term that includes family life educators, couple and family counselors and therapists, social workers, family service agency personnel, home health aides, and others working with couples and families.