Learning Objectives

  1. Define and distinguish between conceptualization, operationalization, and an indicator.
  2. Identify the different forms of single questions and response choices.
  3. Explain the rationale for creating multi-item indexes, and discuss the issues that should always be explored about indexes.
  4. Give examples of the four levels of measurement.
  5. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of the four approaches to testing the validity of measures.
  6. Define four basic methods of evaluating reliability.
  7. Understand the difference between measurement validity and reliability.