Learning Check Answers
Answers to the Learning Check boxes within the text are provided here for your reference.
Learning Check 3.1
1. According to the text, which types of theories were dominant in throughout most of human civilization?
- Rational/Deterrence theories
- Psychological/Freudian theories
- Supernatural/Religious theories
- Positive/empirical theories
2. According to the text, what concept was NOT part of the key propositions of the Age of Enlightenment theorists?
- Social Contract
- Free Will
3. According to the text, Thomas Hobbes claimed that which emotion was both the motivation for groups of people creating a state/government, as well as enforcing its laws/rules?
Learning Check 3.2
1. Beccaria’s seminal work, published in 1764, regarding criminal justice reforms was titled (translated from Italian):
- The Criminal Man
- A General Theory of Crime
- On Crimes and Punishments
- Criminals in the Making
2. According to the text, Beccaria proposed the use of all of the following in his book to make the criminal justice system more effective:
- Jury trials
- Secret/anonymous accusations
- Public trials
- All of the above
3. According to the text, Beccaria believed that the use of the death penalty/capital punishment could be used as an effective deterrent if done correctly. True or false?
4. According to the text, Beccaria claimed that punishments should be based on which:
- Actus Reus
- Mens Rea
Learning Check 3.3
1. According to the text, which element of deterrence did Beccaria believe was the most important in making sure individuals would be deterred from committing crimes:
- Swiftness of punishment
- Certainty of being caught
- Severity of punishment/sentences
- All were equally important
2. According to the text, Beccaria claimed that which crime was the absolute worst offense?
3. According to the text, Beccaria’s book was received well by dictators from around the world, even those with more draconian criminal justice systems. True or false?