Learning Check Answers

Answers to the Learning Check boxes within the text are provided here for your reference.

Learning Check 1.1

Crime that is evil in itself is referred to as (1)_______. Acts that are not necessarily against the law but are considered atypical and may be considered more immoral rather than illegal are (2)________ acts. Criminology is distinguished from other perspectives of crime, such as journalistic, philosophical, or legal perspectives, because it involves the use of (3)____________.


  1. mala in se
  2. mala prohibita
  3. scientific method


Learning Check 1.2 

Law enforcement agencies on the state level that have general police powers as well as additional functions, such as investigating major crimes, are designated as the (1)_______ model; law enforcement agencies on the state level whose primary focus is to enforce the laws concerning public roads and highways are designated as the (2)______ model. Every court, including the United States Supreme Court, is limited in terms of (3)________. Recognizing that the state has both the right and obligation to protect juveniles is referred to as (4)____________.


  1. state police

  2. highway patrols

  3. jurisdiction

  4. parens patriae


Learning Check 1.3

The UCR is based on offenses reported to (1)_______. Unknown crimes are often referred to as (2)_______________. The Part I consists of (3)______ crimes. In an effort to collect more detailed information, the FBI developed (4)________. The (5)_______ includes crimes that are motivated by prejudice based on race, religion, sexual orientation, ethnicity, physical and mental disabilities.


  1. law enforcement

  2. the dark figure of crime

  3. murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, larceny, burglary, and motor vehicle theft

  4. National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)

  5. Hate Crime Data


Learning Check 1.4 

When a theory can explain a phenomenon in a simplistic approach, this would be considered (1)_________. When a theory attempts to explain all crimes and all deviant acts, this theory is broad in (2)_________. Empirical validity is the extent to which a theoretical model is supported by (3)_________.


  1. parsimony

  2. scope

  3. scientific research