Learning Check Answers

Answers to the Learning Check boxes within the text are provided here for your reference.

Learning Check 11.1

According to Tannenbaum, the social reaction to illegal behavior is designated as the (1)             .  A person engaging in (2)                behavior perceives the behavior as bad; this individual, however, does not perceive himself or herself as being a bad person.  Becker maintained that the (3)             is when an individual has been identified as disobeying the rules but this person did not violate the rules. When an individual is given a new personal identity, the most dramatic way of initiating this process is through a public (4)                    such as the criminal trial.


(1) dramatization of evil

(2) primary

(3) falsely accused

(4) status-degradation ceremony


 Learning Check 11.2

Group conflict theory does not explain more individual types of behavior such as (1)             . According to Turk, social order is not maintained through consensus but rather a (2)            -                 balance. Unlike Quinney, Turk argued that the political use of a theory is irrelevant when assessing the validity of that theory; this has been designated as the (3)                  conflict perspective. 


(1) rape or robbery

(2) consensus-coercion

(3) nonpartisan


Self-Assessment/Learning Check 11.3

According to Marx, the (1)              owned the means of production; the (2)                worked for those who owned the means of production. (3)                   and (4)                 maintained that law enforcement agencies are connected to the powerful and wealthy political structure. Colvin and Pauly contend that working class parents in an unstable workplace experience more (5)                 controls.


(1) bourgeoisie

(2) proletariat

(3) Chambliss

(4) Seidman

(5) coercive