SAGE Journal Articles

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Article 1: Hirsch, B., Roffman, J., Deutsch, N., Flynn, C., Loder, T., & Pagano, M. (2000). Inner-city youth development organizations: Strengthening programs for adolescent girls. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 20(2), 210–230. Retrieved from

The challenges of early adolescence are intensified for girls of color who live in disadvantaged urban communities. One response to the needs of these girls comes from the Boys & Girls Clubs of America (BGCA), a youth development organization that has a long-standing presence in inner-city neighborhoods. A gender equity initiative designed to strengthen programming for minority girls at a BGCA affiliate in a major urban center was examined. Drawing on initial qualitative findings, a conceptual framework is presented for understanding the ways in which the clubs can affect urban early adolescent girls’ self-esteem. Several strategic choices confronting this initiative then are considered. The authors emphasize the creation of a “home place” that enables the development of self via organizational responsiveness to girls’ voices, strong bonds between girls and staff, adaptive peer friendship cliques, and the development of programs that fuse the interests of girls and adult staff.

Questions that apply to this article:

  1. What is the Boys and Girls Club of America? What does it do?
  2. How can these clubs affect girls in lower income areas?
  3. What is a home place and why is it important?

Article 2: Kim, B., Gerber, J., Henderson, C., & Kim, Y. (2012). Applicability of general power-control theory to prosocial and antisocial risk-taking behaviors among women in South Korea. The Prison Journal, 92(1), 125–150. Retrieved from

Grasmick and colleagues expanded general power-control theory to include both pro- and antisocial risky behaviors more than 10 years ago; however, to date, there have been no empirical tests of their theoretical modifications. The current study tested the comprehensive model of general power-control theory using three different samples from South Korea: women who enter traditionally male-dominated occupations, female prison inmates, and women incarcerated for intimate partner killing. Results related to women’s patriarchal attitudes and preference for general risks supported our expectations and confirmed the tenets of general power-control theory that focus on both pro- and antisocial risky behaviors. In addition, the ones related to patriarchy of the family of origin supported Hagan’s original power-control theory focusing on only antisocial risky behaviors.

Questions that apply to this article:

  1. How were the samples selected for this study?
  2. Do the findings support general power-control theory?
  3. What is suggested for testing general power-control theory in future studies on Korean women?