Learning Check Answers

Answers to the Learning Check boxes within the text are provided here for your reference.

Learning Check 10.1

(1)                theories focus on social or personal factors that prevent individuals from engaging in selfish, antisocial events. According to Sutherland, criminality is (2)                 . (3)                          assumes that animals, as well as people, learn through associations between stimuli and responses. According to Glaser, (4)                                                 is when learning takes place not only through people close to use but also through other reference groups.


(1)  Control

(2)  Learned

(3)  Classical conditioning

(4)  Differential identification


Learning Check 10.2

Burgess and Akers, in their differential reinforcement theory integrated Sutherland’s work with the learning models of (1)                    conditioning and modeling/imitation. The differential reinforcement perspectives assumes individuals are born with a (2)                           . According to Sykes and Matza, youths engaging in criminal behavior are still partially committed to the dominant (3)                                 . People use methods, or (4)                                                to justify their criminal behavior.


(1) Operant

(2) Blank slate or tabula rasa

(3) Social order

(4) Techniques of neutralization


Learning Check 10.3

1. Which theorist(s) developed the theory of drift?

  1. Gottfredson & Hirschi
  2. Tittle
  3. Hagan
  4. Matza

Answers: D

2. Which theorist(s) developed the integrated theory of power-control?

  1. Gottfredson & Hirschi
  2. Tittle
  3. Hagan
  4. Matza

Answers: C

3. Which theory emphasizes the concepts of control deficit and control surplus?

  1. Theory of drift
  2. Social bonding theory
  3. Differential reinforcement theory
  4. Control-balance theory

Answers: D