Learning Objectives

  1. Articulate what distinguishes learning theories of crime from other perspectives.
  2. Distinguish differential association theory from differential reinforcement theory.
  3. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of differential association and differential reinforcement theory.
  4. Define the five original techniques of neutralization and explain them.
  5. Discuss early forms of social control theory, such as those of Hobbes and Freud.
  6. Explain Reckless’s containment theory.
  7. Explain Hirschi’s social bonding theory, particularly the four elements of the bond.
  8. Describe the key tenets of integrated social control theories.
  9. Discuss low self-control theory, such as what personality traits are involved.