Learning Check Answers

Answers to the Learning Check boxes within the text are provided here for your reference.

Learning Check 12.1

(1)                      is determined through the use of socially agreed upon biological criteria. (2)             is a product of social “doings.” Engaging in a (3)                  relationship usually involves a bartering system in which men hold a more powerful status than women. The idea of (4)                 denotes that women need to be protected for their own good. (5)                     is a social, legal, and political climate that is founded on male dominance and hierarchy. 


(1) Sex

(2) Gender

(3) chivalrous

(4) paternalism

(5) Patriarchy


Learning Check 12.2

(1)                           feminism has also been termed “mainstream feminism.” According to the feminist perspective, gender is a system of male dominance and women’s biology is the main cause of patriarchy. Some have maintained that there are two types of radical feminism: (2)              and (3)           . The (4)                  feminist perspective views class relations as primary and gender relations as secondary. The (5)                         feminist perspective rejects the traditional assumptions about truth and reality and emphasizes on the plurality, the diversity, and the multiplicity of women as distinct from men.


(1) Liberal

(2) libertarian

(3) cultural

(4) Marxist


 Learning Check 12.3

According to (1)                          , the criminality of women is primarily due to their ability to mask or hide their criminal behavior. (2)                 maintained that women are inferior to men; this primarily to due women’s sex organs being inferior to men’s sex organs. Lombroso’s theory has been designated as (3)             determinism. According to Thomas, maleness is katabolic and femaleness is (4)                   


(1) Otto Pollak

(2) Sigmund Freud

(3) biological

(4) anabolic


 Learning Check 12.4

When one uses an existing theoretical perspective based on males and adds women, this is referred to as “(1)                          .” The (2)                              is also referred to as the Emancipation Hypothesis.  The (3)                           Theory attempts to explain gender differences in delinquency rates by including family dynamics. Some scholars maintain that approaches to assess (4)               are based on biases established by, and for, individuals of privilege. The (5)              research approach attempts to determine life experiences, particularly childhood ones, that place on at risk of offending. 


(1) add women and stir

(2) Liberation Thesis

(3) Power-control

(4) objectivity 

(5) pathways