9-1. List the four parts of the human resources management process, define harassment and sexual harassment, and discuss the importance of understanding employment law.
The four parts of the HRM process are (1) planning for, (2) attracting, (3) developing, and (4) retaining employees. Harassment is unwelcome conduct that is based on race, color, religion, sex (including pregnancy), national origin, age (40 or older), disability, or genetic information. Sexual harassment is essentially any unwelcomed behavior of a sexual nature. There are two major types. Quid pro quo sexual harassment occurs when sexual consent affects job outcomes, such as getting a job or assignment or promotion, or keeping one’s job. Hostile work environment sexual harassment occurs when unwelcomed sexual behavior creates an intimidating and offensive workplace for anyone. It is important to understand employment law because violations can result in costly civil and criminal lawsuits.
9-2. Explain the role of strategic human resources planning, and the need for conducting a job analysis including its two parts.
The role of the HR plan is to staff the organization to meet its strategic objectives. If the strategy is growth, the HRM department plans to increase hiring, and if the strategy is retrenchment, it plans to decrease current employment. Job analysis is necessary because it is the basis for attracting, developing, and retaining employees. The job description identifies the tasks and responsibilities of a position, whereas job specifications identify the qualifications needed by the person who is to fill the position.
9-3. Discuss the two parts of attracting employees.
The two parts are recruiting and selecting job candidates. Recruiting is the process of attracting qualified candidates to apply for job openings. There are six major sources used in recruiting: internal recruiting/mobility, employee referrals, walk-ins, outside organizations, agencies, and advertising/Internet. The selection process can include having candidates complete application forms, be interviewed one or more times, take tests, and submit to background and reference checks leading to hiring.
9-4. Describe the three parts of developing employees.
Orientation is the process of introducing new employees to the organization and their jobs. Training and development are related but different. Training is the process of teaching employees the skills necessary to perform a job. Development is ongoing education to improve skills for present and future jobs. There are two types of performance appraisals. A developmental performance appraisal is used to make decisions and plans for performance improvements. An evaluative appraisal is used to make administrative decisions, including decisions about pay raises, transfers, promotions, demotions, and separation.
9-5. Summarize the role of compensation in retaining employees, and indicate three methods of employment separation.
Generous compensation helps to attract and retain good employees. If employees are not satisfied with their compensation, they may leave for better jobs creating turnover. Separation takes place for three reasons: attrition, in which employees voluntarily stop working; firing, in which employees are terminated due to breaking rules or not performing to standard; and layoffs/downsizing, in which retrenchment strategies result in separating employees.