Applying the Concept Answers

Applying the Concept 11-1: Performance Formula

Identify the factor contributing to low performance in the following five situations.

A. ability
B. motivation
C. resources

1. I don’t get it. Tony has been with us for a month now and is trying hard, but he still isn’t meeting the performance goals.
B. Motivation. For some reason, Tony lacks motivation.

2. John has a lot of talent. Too bad he does not seem to like his job and just meets the minimum requirements of the job.
B. Motivation. For some reason, John lacks motivation.

3. Latoya makes more sales calls than the other three reps, but she has the lowest rate of actual sales.
A. Ability. The others seem to have greater ability.

4. I know Malik is bright and could get all As, but he doesn’t seem to realize that grades are important to getting a good job.
B. Motivation. This person is not willing to do the work to get the grades.

5. The book is now behind schedule because the printing press was down for repairs for the past two days.
C. Resources. The team could not do its work because a resource (the printing press) was down.

6. Usain went on a sales call, but when he went online our company website was down. Trying to explain the products without being able to show them to the customer resulted in a lost sale.
C. Resources. The display book is a resource.


Applying the Concept 11-2: Content Motivation Theories

Identify the theory behind each of the following statements on how to motivate employees.

A. hierarchy of needs theory
B. ERG theory
C. two-factor theory
D. acquired needs theory

7. “At Edwardo CPA Services, we offer good salaries and benefits. Our HR staff is recommending that we have more social events so employees can get to know each other better.”
A. Hierarchy of needs theory. The company has progressed from physiological needs (pay), to safety needs (benefits), to social needs (teams).

8. “Here at Stanley Animal Clinic, we focus on hiring people who love animals and want to come to work to take care of them.” 
C. Two-factor theory. The manager was focusing on maintenance factors but switched to motivators.

9. “I know I like to micromanage, but I’m working at giving some of my employees more autonomy in their jobs.”               
D. Acquired needs theory. The manager has a high need for power, but will empower employees.

10. “A five-step sequence of needs is complex. I like this other one with three needs.”
B. ERG theory. The ERG theory simplifies Maslow’s hierarchy of five types of needs into three needs.


Applying the Concept 11-3: Individual versus Collective Motivation Techniques

Identify the theory behind each of the following statements on how to motivate employees.

A. equity theory
B. goal-setting theory
C. expectancy theory

11. “I talked to all of my employees so I would know what is important to them. Now I can offer rewards that will motivate them when they perform a task well.”
C. Expectancy theory. The two parts of expectancy theory are to assign tasks that employees can accomplish and to give them rewards that are of value to them.

12. “I delegate tough tasks that my employees can do, and I tell them exactly what I want them to do, with a tough deadline.”
B. Goal-setting theory. The manager is setting achievable but difficult goals.

13. “I realize you don’t think my decision is fair to you, but you have to realize that everyone can’t have the weekend off.”
A. Equity theory. Making sure everyone perceives fair treatment is equity.

Applying the Concept 11-4: Types of Reinforcement

Identify the theory behind each of the following statements on how to motivate employees.

A. positive/reward
B. avoidance/negative
C. punishment
D. extinction

14. “Avi, I know we can make more money for ourselves, but it’s illegal to fix prices and you can face criminal charges, so I’m not going to do it.”
B. Avoidance Reinforcement. Avi is avoiding getting into legal problems.

15. “I really appreciate your staying late tonight to finish this project.”
A. Positive. Praise of thanks is a reward.

16. “Don’t act surprised, Heidi, or give me any excuses. You know we dock your pay if you come in late.”
C. Punishment. Docking of pay is a punishment.

17. “I was hoping that Sharron would stop being mean to Jamal, but it has been going on for a week now, so I guess I’m going to have to talk to her about it.”
D. Extinction. Ignoring the problem is extinction, and it is not working.


Applying the Concept 11-5: Schedules of Reinforcement

Identify the theory behind each of the following statements on how to motivate employees.

A. continuous incremental schedule
B. fixed-interval
C. variable-interval
D. fixed-ratio
E. variable-ratio

18. “Anita, you really hustled to finish that report by today. Thanks.”
E. Variable-ratio Reinforcement. This is an occasional giving of praise based on an output.

19. “I just closed another good sale, so I’m making another $500 this week.”
A. Continuous. He gets a commission for every sale made.

20. “If we meet our quarterly sales goal, we will get a share of the profits.”
D. Fixed-ratio. Profit sharing is a type of bonuse given after meeting the set/standard objective/standard.

21. “I look forward to getting out of working on Friday mornings to attend our weekly department meeting.”
B. Fixed-interval. A weekly meeting is based on a fixed/set schedule and the passage of time.

22. “I don’t mind being paid monthly, and I like February better than the months with 31 days.”
C. Variable-interval. The number of days varies by month, and months are based on time.