Applying the Concept Answers

Applying the Concepts 6-1: Types of Change

Identify the type of change in each statement:

A. strategy
B. structure
C. technology
D. people

1. “We are improving the quality of our product by making the battery life longer.”      
C. Technology. This is an example of the systems process of transforming inputs (new, improved ones) into outputs.

2. “We are implementing a retrenchment strategy by laying off 25% of our employees.”
B. Structure. Layoffs of 25% will change the organizational structure.

3. “Due to increasing competition, we are going to have to improve our ability to keep our existing customers.”
A. Strategy. This is an example of a defending strategy.

4. “Usain, I’d like you to get a college degree so you can advance into management positions with us.”
D. People. Education is a form of training to improve an employee’s skills.

5. “The new machine makes the product twice as fast as the old one.” 
C. Technology. A new machine is an example of technology.


Applying the Concept 6-2: Innovative and Noninnovative Cultures

Identify the type of organizational culture described in each statement.

A. innovative culture
B. noninnovative culture

6. “We can do our jobs any way we want to, so long as we meet our objectives.”           
A. Innovative culture. Jobs autonomy is commonly used by innovative companies.

7. “We have several levels of management to approve implementing our ideas.”            
B. Noninnovative culture. Tall organizations tend to be bureaucratic with multiple levels of management to slow innovation.

8. “I tried to develop a better glue, but it didn’t work. However, my boss gave me a very sincere thank-you for trying.”
A. Innovative culture. Employees are encouraged to try creative ideas and are not punished for failure in innovative cultures.

9. “Why does my boss always have to tell me all the details of how to do a new task without my input?”
B. Noninnovative culture. This is an example of focusing on means rather than on ends.

10. “Our managers focus on having us follow their standing plans.”       
B. Noninnovative culture. Closely following standing plans rather than flexibility stifles creativity.


Applying the Concept 6-3: OD Interventions

Identify the appropriate OD intervention for the change described in each statement.

A. training and development
B. sensitivity training
C. team building
D. process consultation
E. forcefield analysis
F. survey feedback
G. large-group intervention
H. work design
I. direct feedback

11. “I think we could benefit from an organization-wide intervention to improve productivity.”
G. Large-group intervention. Bringing together participants from all parts of the organization to improve productivity is essential the GE Workout large-group intervention.

12. “We need an intervention that can identify the employee morale problems so we can change the situation.”
F. Survey feedback. A questionnaire can be used to gather data as the basis for change.

13. “I’ve been hearing a lot about cloud computing. Should we go to the cloud?”
I. Direct feedback. An expert in this field of cloud computing can make a recommendation. After moving to the cloud, other interventions could be used to properly use it.

14. “When we move to the cloud, who is going to learn to run it?”
A. Training and development. Training is the process of developing skills to be used on the job.

15. “How are we going to prepare our employees to put the product together as a group rather than each person continuing to produce one part of it?”
C. Team building. Team building can help employees learn to work effectively as a group.

16. “Our team has a lot of conflict that is affecting how we get along as we complete the job.”
D. Process consultation. It is used to improve team dynamics—how people interact as they work.

17. “Employees are getting bored. What can we do to make jobs more interesting and challenging for them?”
H. Work design. Job enrichment is used to make jobs more interesting.

18. “Your employees are often rude to each other. What can we do to make them better understand how their behavior affects their coworkers?”
B. Sensitivity training. It is used to “teach people how their behavior affects others and how others’ behavior affects theirs.”

19. “Why don’t we get a small group together to figure out things that are holding us back from getting a higher product quality rating and what we can do to improve quality?”
E. Force field analysis. The present quality rating is not high (center), the things holding us back are hindering forces (left) and the how to improve are the driving forces (right).