Learning Objectives

1-1. Describe a manager’s responsibility.

A manager is responsible for achieving organizational objectives through efficient and effective use of resources. Efficient means doing things right, and effective means doing the right thing. The manager’s resources include human, financial, physical, and informational resources.

1-2. List the three skills of effective managers.

The three management skills are technical, interpersonal, and decision-making skills. Technical skills involve the ability to use methods and techniques to perform a task. Interpersonal skills involve the ability to understand, communicate with, and work well with individuals and groups through developing effective relationships. Decision-making skills are based on the ability to conceptualize situations and select alternatives to solve problems and take advantage of opportunities.

1-3. Explain the four management functions and the three management role categories.

The four management functions are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Planning is the process of setting objectives and determining in advance exactly how the objectives will be met. Organizing is the process of delegating and coordinating tasks and allocating resources to achieve objectives. Leading is the process of influencing employees to work toward achieving objectives. Controlling is the process of measuring and monitoring progress and taking corrective action when needed to ensure that objectives are achieved.

Managers play the interpersonal role when they act as figurehead, leader, or liaison. Managers play the informational role when they act as monitor, disseminator, or spokesperson. Managers play the decisional role when they act as entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, or negotiator.

1-4. Recall the hierarchy of management levels and describe the differences among the levels in terms of skills needed and functions performed.

The three hierarchy levels are top managers

(e.g., operations executive), middle managers (e.g., marketing manager), and first-line managers (e.g., accounting supervisor). Top managers have a greater need for decision-making skills than do first-line managers. Middle managers have a need for all three skills. First-line managers have a greater need for technical skills than do top managers.

1-5. Summarize the major similarities and differences between the classical and behavioral theorists.

Both classical and behavioral theorists wanted to find the best way to manage in all organizations. However, the classicists focused on the job and management functions, whereas the behaviorists focused on people.