SAGE Journal Articles

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(9.1). This article explains a mixed methods approach to developing a questionnaire.

Journal Article 1: Enosh, G., Tzafrir, S. S., & Stolovy, T. (2015). The development of Client Violence Questionnaire (CVQ). Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 9, 273–290. doi:10.1177/1558689814525263

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop, test, and validate a questionnaire for assessing social workers’ exposure to client violence, which we call the Client Violence Questionnaire (CVQ). Following established procedures for scale development, four distinct stages of research were conducted, combining qualitative and quantitative methods. The contribution of this study is threefold—methodological, conceptual, and practical. The instrument offers practitioners and academic researchers the opportunity to apply the scale both for internal monitoring and knowledge sharing as well as further research. The development process of the CVQ scale demonstrates how the qualitative method can serve as a distinct research stage and at the same time support and enhance the quantitative one, thus contributing to the validity and applicability of the instrument.

(9.2). This is an article written by two well-known experts on questionnaire construction and survey research.

Journal Article 2: Schwarz, N., & Oyserman, D. (2001). Asking questions about behavior: Cognition, communication, and questionnaire construction. American Journal of Evaluation, 22, 127–160.

Abstract: Evaluation researchers frequently obtain self-reports of behaviors, asking program participants to report on process and outcome-relevant behaviors. Unfortunately, reporting on one's behavior poses a difficult cognitive task, and participants' reports can be profoundly influenced by question wording, format, and context. We review the steps involved in answering a question about one's behavior and highlight the underlying cognitive and communicative processes. We alert researchers to what can go wrong and provide theoretically grounded recommendations for pilot testing and questionnaire construction.

(9.3). If you ever want to use a questionnaire in one language with participants with a different language, you will need to make sure the translation is accurate and works. This is an example of a research study that conducted a questionnaire translation.

Journal Article 3: Forsyth, B. H., Kudela, M. S., Levin, K., Lawrence, D., & Willis, G. D. (2007). Methods for translating an English-language survey questionnaire on tobacco use into Mandarin, Cantonese, Korean, and Vietnamese. Field Methods, 19, 264–283.

Abstract: This article reports research on procedures for translating a survey questionnaire on tobacco use from English into Mandarin Chinese, Cantonese Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese. The goal is to offer practical guidelines for researchers involved in translating questionnaires. The authors operationalize a five-step process for translation and evaluation based on the frameworks presented in Harkness, Van de Vijver, and Mohler (2003) and the U.S. Census Bureau (2004). Based on qualitative observations, the five-step process produced effective questionnaire translations. The iterative nature of the process and the team-based approach the process encourages were particularly important to the success. Based on documented experiences, the authors identify lessons learned and make recommendations to other researchers who need to translate questionnaires.