SAGE Journal Articles

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(7.1). This is an article discussing how to use a specific questionnaire. You could search for a similar article on a questionnaire of particular interest to you.

Journal Article 1: Watkins, K. E., & O’Neal, J. (2013). The dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (the DLOQ): A nontechnical manual. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 15, 133–147.


The Problem. No readily accessible source of information is available to answer questions posed by those who seek to use the DLOQ about its construction, utility, and reliability.

The Solution. This article traces the development of theoretical constructs that undergird the survey, outlines the steps of survey construction, and responds to frequently asked questions.

The Stakeholders. Human resource and organization development (HROD) scholars who would use the DLOQ in studies of organizational culture need accurate information about the instrument. HROD practitioners who plan to use the instrument also need information about its utility and reliability to share with stakeholders and to ensure that high quality data will inform their interventions.

(7.2). This article and the next are examples of “measurement research studies,” that is, studies that collected data and are reporting on the reliability and validity of a test or questionnaire. You should search for similar type articles for a questionnaire of interest to you.

Journal Article 2: Munroe, A., & Pearson, C. (2006). The Munroe multicultural attitude scale questionnaire: A new instrument for multicultural studies. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66, 819–834.

Abstract: Institutions of higher education want to diversify their learning climates, and many offer courses in multiculturalism, yet these courses still do not meet the needs of attitudinal change. A new instrument was developed, the Munroe Multicultural Attitude Scale Questionnaire (MASQUE), that was theoretically based in Banks’s transformative approach, which specifically measured multicultural attitudes. Psychometric properties of the instrument's scores are discussed. Exploratory factor analysis supported the “know,” “act,” and “care” domains of Banks’s transformative approach, and the instrument was sensitive to detecting group differences on several demographic variables. The MASQUE's potential uses for affecting multicultural research and instruction are discussed.


Journal Article 3: Johnson, B., Stevens, J. J., & Zvoch, K. (2007). Teachers’ perceptions of school climate: A validity study of scores from the revised school level environment questionnaire. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 67, 833–844.

Abstract: Scores from a revised version of the School Level Environment Questionnaire (SLEQ) were validated using a sample of teachers from a large school district. An exploratory factor analysis was used with a randomly selected half of the sample. Five school environment factors emerged. A confirmatory factor analysis was run with the remaining half of the sample. Goodness-of-fit indices indicated that the factor structure fit the data reasonably well. Further analyses using structural equation modeling techniques revealed that the Revised SLEQ worked equally well for all samples. Invariance testing showed that the fitted model and the estimated parameter values were statistically equivalent across all samples. Internal consistency estimates provided further evidence of the reliability of factor scores. In addition, an analysis of variance indicated that the instrument discriminated climate differences between schools. Results suggest that the Revised SLEQ provides a good tool for studying teachers' perceptions of school climate.

(7.4). This article includes a discussion of the internal structure of a scale. It uses factor analysis, which basically tells you what different dimensions are measured by the scale. This scale measures two factors or dimensions.

Journal Article 4: Dawson, A. E., & Wymbs, B. T. (2016). Validity and Utility of the Parent–Teacher Relationship Scale–II. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 34, 751–764. doi:10.1177/0734282915627027

Abstract: Preliminary findings indicate that positive relations between parents and teachers are associated with successful school outcomes for children. However, measures available to assess parent–teacher relations are scant. The current study examined validity evidence for the Parent–Teacher Relationship Scale–II (PTRS). Specifically, the internal structure of the PTRS and the test–criterion relationships between the PTRS and several important child-level variables were examined. Primary school teachers (n = 120) completed the PTRS referencing two different parents of children in their classroom, as well as outcome measures about both of these parent’s children (i.e., academic competence, student–teacher relationship, and behavior). Confirmatory factor analyses supported the two-factor solution originally proposed by the PTRS authors. Associations between the PTRS and child outcome variables provided further evidence in support of test–criterion relationships. School mental health professionals and researchers seeking to assess the contributions of parent–teacher relations to academic and behavioral outcomes of children should consider administering the PTRS.

(7.5). This is an example of an empirical study examining the “predictive validity” of scale.

Journal Article 5: Lane, K. L., Oakes, W. P., Cantwell, E. D., Common, E. A., Royer, D. J., Leko, M. M., . . . Allen, G. E. (2018). Predictive validity of Student Risk Screening Scale—Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE) scores in elementary schools. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 1–14.

Abstract: In this article, we examined predictive validity of Student Risk Screening Scale—Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE) scores for use with elementary-age students (N = 4,465) from 14 elementary schools. Results indicated elementary school students with high levels of risk according to fall SRSS-IE scores—especially those with externalizing behaviors—were more likely to have lower oral reading fluency scores, lower Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) reading scores, more nurse visits, and more days spent in in-school suspension compared with students at low risk for externalizing or internalizing behaviors. Educational implications, limitations, and future directions are presented.