SAGE Journal Articles

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(8.1). You can see in this article the use of interviews to collect empirical data.

Journal Article 1: Clemmensen, T. H., Busted, L. M., Søborg, J., & Bruun, P. (2016). The family’s experience and perception of phases and roles in the progression of dementia: An explorative, interview-based study. Dementia, 1–24. doi:10.1177/1471301216682602

Abstract: This paper examines how the relatives of a person with dementia experience challenges in everyday life. A model of phases is developed on the basis of interviews with 14 relatives from eight families. Data were subjected to a thematic content analysis, which found that the progression of dementia—from the perspective of the family—had three phases. These phases involved small changes in everyday life, adaptations to everyday life, and the loss of everyday life. The analysis further identified the following two archetypes of relatives that develop throughout the progression of dementia: the protective relative and the decisive relative. The study found that the two types of relatives experience different challenges during the three phases. It is important for health professionals to be familiar with these changes, when they evaluate whether the relatives of a person with dementia require help.

(8.2). In this research study, the authors used focus groups to collect data.

Journal Article 2: DuBois, D. L., Lockerd, E. M., Reach, K., & Parra, G. R. (2003). Effective strategies for esteem-enhancement: What do young adolescents have to say? The Journal of Early Adolescence, 23, 405–434.

Abstract: Focus groups were conducted with young adolescents (N = 61) to obtain a consumer perspective on esteem-enhancement strategies for their age group. Overall, the input obtained supports a comprehensive, psychosocial/developmental approach. To address the views and preferences expressed by young adolescents, program content should (a) provide esteem-enhancing experiences in multiple domains of early adolescent development, (b) reduce reliance on “unhealthy” sources of self-esteem, and (c) be sensitive to diversity in participant backgrounds (e.g., race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status). Program designs should (a) be inclusive (i.e., include all youth) and involve multiple important persons in young adolescents’ lives; (b) emphasize an experiential, individualized approach; (c) allow for participation over extended periods of time; and (d) incorporate strong linkages to the surrounding community. Based on current findings and related research, the need for esteem-enhancement strategies that are environmentally oriented and integrated within broader youth development initiatives is emphasized.

(8.3). In this article, the researchers conducted qualitative observations.

Journal Article 3: Walshe, C., Ewing, G., & Griffiths, J. (2011). Using observation as a data collection method to help understand patient and professional roles and actions in palliative care settings. Palliative Medicine, 26, 1048–1054.


Background: Observational research methods are important for understanding people’s actions, roles and behaviour. However, these techniques are underused generally in healthcare research, including research in the palliative care field.

Aim: The aim in this paper is to place qualitative observational data collection methods in their methodological context and provide an overview of issues to consider when using observation as a method of data collection. This paper discusses practical considerations when conducting palliative care research using observation.

Findings: Observational data collection methods span research paradigms, and qualitative approaches contribute by their focus on ‘natural’ settings which allow the explanation of social processes and phenomena. In particular, they can facilitate understanding of what people do and how these can alter in response to situations and over time, especially where people find their own practice difficult to articulate. Observational studies can be challenging to carry out: we focus on the potentially problematic areas of sampling, consent and ethics, data collection and recording, data management and analysis.

Conclusion: Qualitative observational data collection methods can contribute to theoretical and conceptual development and the explanation of social processes in palliative care. In particular this contribution to understanding care structures and processes should improve understanding of patients’ experiences of their care journey and thus impact on care outcomes.

(8.4). This article explains one way to use and collect visual data in research with groups of people.

Journal Article 4: Alexander, E., Eppler, M. J., & Bresciani, D. (2019). Visual replay methodology: A mixed methods approach for group discussion analysis. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 13, 33–51. doi:10.1177/1558689816664479

Abstract: In this article, we propose an innovative mixed methods research (MMR) technique and discuss its theory and applications. The visual replay methodology (VRM) is a new graphic way to investigate the discourse patterns during software-aided small group discussions. A visually supported conversation is recorded through screen capturing and replayed to reconstruct how the discussion has unfolded. The VRM responds to the “integration challenge” that the MMR community is facing—by employing the power of visualization, data integration is leveraged to a new level, where visual synergy gains enable a “value-added” research outcome. By employing multigenre integration and a moderately pragmatic approach, the VRM reduces the researcher–subject power-relation gap and contributes to some long-standing MMR debates regarding reflexivity and participation.