SAGE Journal Articles

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Article 1: Lynch, T. A., & Abel, D. E. (2015). Teratogens and congenital heart disease. Journal of Diagnostic Medical Sonography, 31(5), 301-305.

Learning Objective: 5.2
How does the asset support this Learning Objective? The article discusses the impact of various teratogens on congenital heart disease.

Summary: The antenatal diagnosis of fetal congenital heart disease (CHD) allows for identification of potentially life-threatening conditions that may occur in the early neonatal period. A suspicion of congenital heart disease often occurs during the routine fetal anatomical survey. Subsequently, fetal echocardiography allows for a more detailed assessment of the cardiac lesion that is necessary in order to plan for delivery and postnatal surgical management. To enhance detection of congenital cardiac anomalies, and in particular ones that are potentially serious, it is important for the obstetrical sonographer to have an understanding of potential teratogenic agents associated with an increased risk of congenital heart disease.

Questions to Consider:

  1. What is a teratogen?
  2. What teratogens are associated with fetal cardiac malformation?
  3. Describe the FDA categories of pregnancy risk.

Article 2: Kelly, N., Makarem, D. C., & Wasserstein, M. P. (2016). Screening of newborns for disorders with high benefit-risk ratios should be mandatory. The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 44 (2), 180-190.

Learning Objective: 5.4
How does the asset support this Learning Objective? The article discusses the importance of newborn screenings for child well-being.

Summary: Newborn screening has evolved to include an increasingly complex spectrum of diseases, raising concerns that screening should be optional and require parental consent. Early detection of disorders like PKU and MCAD is essential to prevent serious disability and death in affected children. These are examples of high benefit-risk ratio disorders because of the irrefutable health benefits of early detection, coupled with the low risks of treatment. The dire consequences of not diagnosing an infant with a treatable disorder because of parental refusal to screen are wholly unacceptable. Thus, we believe that newborn screening for disorders with high benefit-risk ratios should continue to be mandatory.

Questions to Consider:

  1. Why is newborn screening important? Why do some researchers think it should be mandatory?
  2. What types of prenatal screening is typically conducted?
  3. What are the ethical concerns associated with newborn screening?