SAGE Journal Articles
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Learning Objective: 11.2
How does the asset support this Learning Objective? The article discusses the relationship between family functioning (e.g., family cohesion, number of siblings, family adaptability, amount of time left in the care of others during childhood, birth order, and gender) and the development of social self-esteem.
Summary: The relationship between social self-esteem and family functioning in college-aged young adults was investigated. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify family variables predictive of social self-esteem. High levels of family cohesion and number of siblings significantly predicted strong social self-esteem. Family adaptability, amount of time left in the care of others during childhood, birth order, and gender were nonsignificant predictors. As the sample was predominantly female, these findings are reviewed within the context of feminist family therapy, and indications for counseling young women are discussed.
Questions to Consider:
- How is social self-esteem defined?
- How is social self-esteem portrayed in those with high social self-esteem and those with low social self-esteem?
- What family characteristics foster high social self-esteem? Low social self-esteem?
Learning Objective: 11.4
How does the asset support this Learning Objective? The article discusses racial identity development in adolescence as it relates to emotional, social, and academic outcomes.
Summary: Most theories of racial self-identity argue that a racially inconsistent identity indicates emotional distress and internal turmoil. However, empirical research on racial identity and consistency indicates that racial inconsistency is more common than previously believed, and some argue that it can be a positive adaptation for individuals. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, we explore the degree to which racial identity inconsistency is associated with emotional, social, and academic outcomes. We find that racial inconsistency is not associated with negative outcomes for individuals and, via access to white privilege, may be associated with benefits for some individuals. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for theories of racial identity.
Questions to Consider:
- Describe the various theories of multiracial identity. What are the key concepts in each?
- What is identity inconsistency?
- What are the implications of identity inconsistency on adolescent development?